Minatures and engravings are a form of picture art. There are techniques in the ideas and approches to drawing. They have played a part in the developement of picture art and have provided influence. They bring forth the existence of history in different geographical regions and represent various cultural environments. Miniatures are colourful, engravings are black and white. The meeting point of any two art forms is the formation of surface art. The political , social economic and cultural life of the societies and events depicted and the beauty art and aesthetics are reflected upon our times. It can be said that : This art form is like a certificate of history reaching our times from the past. It is a source of human history. Picture art is a treasure.
The origin of minatures and minature art is in Asia. Turkish picture art is one type. History has been brought forward by Turkish societies and over time the Turkish Islamic societies have had an effect on Iran and Mezopotamia and regions.They became widespread throughout the Arab and indian environments and have their own specialities and characteristics. They reached the highest level during the first three hundred years of the Ottoman Empire.
In Asian Turkish socieities
The first examples of picture art occured in the years 10,000 – 3,000 MÖ ( Before M ). The first examples were rock pictures and animal motiffs drawn on hunting and household implements decorated with fish spines. In the 2,000’s (MÖ) The basic trend was signs and generally pictures with eagle motiff embellishments. In this period paint production improved and red paint was discovered. It began to be used on pictures. In the Hun empire and particularly the western Hun state the existing Gökturk application of original engraving and embellishing improved. ” bediz ” was at the top of this art form and it became known as ” Bedizci”. In the 8th century ( MS) (After M ) the first examples of Turkish picture art were Uigher fresks. The minature art of the Turkish societies who had entered the Islamic environment was generally influenced by the Uigher culture. It became widespread in Selchuk times.It was used to picturize the subjects and embellish the written material. The people who strived in this art form were given the name “Nakkash” Şihabüddin Savaşi, Haci el-Mevlevi, of Aynüddevle, Ahmed of Konya, Selchuk of Anatolia were the famous “nakkashes”
The books that have reached our times from the 12th and 13th centuries and have miniature embellishments are ” Kitab al Hasais” ” Kitab firmaret el hıyal el hendiseye” ” yarka ve Gülşah”
The Ottoman Empire
Generally three sources reported the political, social cultural and military life, the victories and the events which occured in the times of the Sultans. They wrote and provided human history. They are : Chroniclers such as Aşikpaşazade, Percevi and Katip Çelebi. Travelers such as Evliya Çelebi and like Arili, Eflatun , lokman, Ali and Talıkzade. The miniatures depicted the things explained or the real events occuring in these written artifacts. With this approach a view of any situation, subject or event was given both by the explanation of the historian and in the minature embellishment. It provides the written artifact with authenticity and increases the historic value.The most definate speciality of the miniatures is that they are a certificate of the events, an exhibition of the strengh and greatness in the lives of the Sultans and they put forward the way of life of the society. Every miniature provides value and a historic certificate to the events portrayed.
The protection, care of and support for art was a result of the turkish ideology and ethics. The Ottoman empire was accepted as a public foundation and a public service for the arts. They were organised in connection with the palace. It was the place of ” Nakkash” houses and the place of foriegn “Nakkash” works. The top or the top group worked in managed workshops and in these “Nakkash” houeses minatures were produced by teamwork and they were of the highest grade. Turkish minatures stood apart from the miniatures of other Islamic countries by there looks, colours, the techniques, drawings and motiffes. The way of depicting was clear and realistic, natural and man made artifacts (such as architecture) social events and relationships could be portrayed in the finest detail. In an original method art was created on maps, history, geography and other subjects were portrayed.
From the beginning of the Ottoman Empire miniature art moved parralel to developement and passed through various levels and phases. It became widespread with the interest and support of the Sultans Managers. At every level it’s uniqueness was protected the works of Sinan bey, Matrakçi,Nasuh, Nıgari, Nakkaş, Hasan,Talikzade Subhi Çelebi, Nadiri, Levni, AbdullahBuhari are the masterpieces of Turkish minature art that have reached our times.