Nuclear weapons creates to remain a serious threat for the new world order. However, since it is used the first time in 1945 nuclear threat perceptions have changed. The only unchanging thing that states has lived on the fear of nuclear weapons. The end of the Cold War in threat perceptions represents a breaking point.
For the production of nuclear weapons have to enhance a serious technological infrastructure. Such a technological infrastructure seems to have great powers like the United States, Russia, China, Britain and France. Indeed, mentioned states are five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and have nuclear weapons. At this point the question come to mind, how will be provided to the security of nuclear weapons and international security? Nuclear safety is an important issue at least nuclear weapon. Because after the 9/11 attacks the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) likely emerge into the hands of the global terrorist groups. Such a process of proliferation of nuclear weapons to deal with unintended consequences for international security and could lead to devastating consequences.
The United States of America as the world’s largest nuclear power is the most important country in terms of nuclear safety. The nuclear threat in the world has changed and transformed parellel to U.S. hostile perceptions. Essentially, it is possible to be distinguished two periods of nuclear age:
- First Nuclear Age the cold war era can be considered. Nuclear weapons during the cold war setting policies between east and west blocks are the only element of deterrent power. Forces which came to face to face during this period eastern bloc that the Soviet Union and its successors and western block that the United States and its successors.
- Second Nuclear Age in the context of globalization by developing a synchronized way and for the states have become a serious threat in terms of global terrorist groups are the emergence period. The parts of mentioned period are states and global terrorist groups which non-specific of potential and unpredictable potency.
As you can see the fight greed of Cold War had transformed to mutual cooperation between the U.S. and Russia.
If you need to extract, the roles of states and international organizations have changed. State governments and international organizations have to fight with hostile which non-state and irregular union. United States of America, especially after the September 11 attacks ‘intergovernmental cooperation’ has been highlighted. Total war against terrorism where and when in the world, it will hit someone non-specific is the basic strategy of the U.S. War on terrorism, while in G.Bush period is expressing to the unilateralism which ‘with us’ and ‘not with us’, in B.Obama period is expressing to the multilateralism which care to the ‘cooperation and dialogue.’ This differentiation of American strategy could be considered as an orientation from the realist perspective to idealist perspective.
The aim of the United States has followed that strategy to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Many states particularly U.S. in order to reduce chemical, biological and mass effects of nuclear weapons had to reach oneness. Because nuclear weapons has been reached to the size that threaten international peace. Since especially 1948, the control of nuclear weapons which the increasing spread came from the initiative field of the states. In this framework, signed in 1968 and came into force in 1970, Reduction of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT) has an important place. Until today, 189 states have signed to the treaty. These states have committed treaty reducing nuclear armaments. On the other hand, the process of nuclear weapon reduction which was started by the singing of SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Tasks) treaty between U.S. and SSCB in 1982 is continued by the singing of START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Tasks) between the presidents of U.S. and Russia in 2010 at Prague.
(To be continued…)
1. Neack L., Elusive Security, New Millennium Books In International Studies, United State of America, 2007, p.47