Turkey have chosen its new president and MPs on June 24. Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s re-election at the June 24 polls marked Turkey’s transition to an executive presidential system of government, doing away with the prime minister’s post, among other changes. Recep Tayyip Erdogan becomes first president of Turkey’s new governmental system. Now its time to New Era With Erdogan. In this new era, there are many changes awaiting the Turkish government system. Let’s take a closer look at some of these changes:
Under the new system, a performance of military service is no longer a requirement to be a parliamentary candidate. The military courts are restricted to only disciplinary issues among military officers. The jurisdiction of these courts which was defined very broadly beforehand will be transferred to civil courts. The two slots for military judges on the 17-seat Constitutional Court will be eliminated. The court now has 15 judges and all are civilians. Three of the judges on the court will be appointed by the parliament, and the remaining 12 seats will be appointed by the president as before.
Under the new sytem, Premier’s office is abolished. With the new changes, the president is becoming head of government as well as head of state, absorbing all authorities and responsibilities of the prime minister. The new post of vice president will be formed and cabinet members will be appointed by the president. The new system does not allow an MP to become a cabinet member. The number of the vice presidents is not given in the new law. The number of seats of ministries dropped to 13 from 22 and the justice ministry undersecretary is given a permanent seat on the board. High-level executives of public institutions and university presidents will be also appointed by the president after June 24. Presidential and parliamentary elections will be held on the same day every five years, both of them would be open to re-election requests.
Under the new sytem, as head of state, the president can declare a state of emergency in a number of regions or throughout the country for a period not exceeding six months. It is to be published in the official newspaper and presented to the parliament to be approved. The president can enact certain laws by decrees on issues pertaining to the executive area under the new system, leaving the regulation of basic rights and duties to the legislative branch. But a presidential decree cannot be issued on topics that are regulated by the law. If the parliament and the president issue laws or decrees on the same topic, the presidential decree becomes void. Also, the parliament can bring presidential decrees before the Constitutional Court for review. The annual state budget, previously set by the parliament, is now drafted by the president. However, it must be approved by the parliament. f it is rejected, the previous year’s budget will be used temporarily with an increase of the revaluation rate.
Under the new sytem, The parliament loses its right to scrutinise ministers, but it holds the audit and monitoring mechanisms on the executive branch through parliamentary investigations, general debates and written inquiries. The parliament can also begin impeachment proceedings or investigation of the president with a majority vote of the MPs. The president can be put on trial with a two-thirds majority of the parliament. If she/he found guilty, her/his term would end. The parliament, with the votes of at least 360 MPs, and also the president can call for re-elections. In that case, both the parliamentary and presidential elections would be held on the same day.
Source: TRT WORLD